1. Meaning of Research: The term research includes two words, specifically ‘re’ and ‘search’. By and large, ‘re’ signifies again and ‘search’ signifies to discover. As indicated by Creswell, ‘research is a procedure of steps used to gather and analyze information to increase our understanding of a particular topic or issue.
In short, research is an acronym of the following that defines its essence.
R= Rational way of thinking
E= Expert and exhaustive treatment
S= Search and solution
R= Relationship of facts
C= Critical observation, careful planning, constructive attitude.
H= Honesty and hardworking
- The scientific method consists of systematic observation, classification, and interpretation of data.
- Research is fundamentally logical to give a target, which is a fair-minded assessment of information. There is not at all an informal research approach, even in the event of sociologies.
2. Research Objectives:
- Investigate some existing situation or problem.
- Build or make another method or framework.
- Generate new knowledge.
- Explore and analyze more general issues.
- Offer a solution to a problem.
- Review and synthesize the existing knowledge.
3. Research characteristics:
a. Objectivity: It means research with no inclination. Scientists, as a rule, avoid the potential risk that outcomes are not influenced by their very own quality, conduct, and frame of mind. They critically examine the research method to avoid any bias.
b. Reliability: Reliability with regards to research is consistency. It alludes to the degree to which an examination produces predictable outcomes. It can also be termed verifiability. If any research yields similar results each time, then it is undertaken with a similar population in the given context and with similar procedures, it is said to be termed verifiability.
c. Validity: Here, validity in research mainly stands for accuracy of procedures, research instruments, tests, etc. The idea of legitimacy can likewise be comprehended by suggesting a conversation starter, ‘are we estimating or ready to quantify what we initially proposed to gauge’. There are six different types of validity given:
i. Internal validity: With higher internal validity, a researcher can establish a better casual relationship between two or more variables.
ii. External validity: It means external factors that can affect the study must be controlled.
iii. Face validity: By valid, we mean that the survey and questionnaire accurately measure what they are supposed to measure.
iv. Content validity: The indicator measures all aspects of the construct and not just a part of it.
v. Criterion validity: The indicator corresponds with and is predictive of measurements using related indicators.
vi. Construct validity: The indicator measures the construct in a manner that is convergent with other measures in terms of direction.
d. Accuracy: It is firmly identified with legitimacy. It is likewise how much research procedures, instruments, and devices are identified with one another. Precision additionally measures whether the exploration apparatuses have been chosen in the most ideal way and research methodology suits the examination issue or not.
e. Credibility: It is the utilization of the best wellspring of data and the best techniques in the exploration. The utilization of optional information spares time and decreases cost. Be that as it may, the over-the-top dependence on auxiliary information when the alternative of essential information is accessible involves the danger of diminishing the validity of the exploration. Hence, it has to be a trade-off between primary data and secondary data.
f. Generalizability: It is firmly identified with legitimacy. It alludes to how much research discoveries can be connected to a bigger population. The sample considered is representative of the whole population so the findings should also apply to the whole population.
g. Empirical research: It is based on real-life experiences, direct experiences, or observation by the researcher. It suggests that examination is connected essentially to at least one part of a genuine circumstance and manages solid information that gives a premise to outer legitimacy to the aftereffects of the exploration.
h. Systematic: For an exploration to be powerful, it must be deliberate. It is the main way to deal with embracing any examination work and each progression must pursue the other. There are a set of procedures that have been tested over some time and are, thus, suitable to use in research. Therefore, each research should follow a definite procedure.
i. Controlled factors: In real-life experiences, there is always more than one factor that affects the outcome of an event. Similarly, in research, various factors may affect the outcome and some are taken as controlled factors, whereas the others are tested for the possible outcome.
j. Cyclical: Research is a repetitive procedure since it begins with an issue and finishes with an issue.
k. Logical: The statement, that great research is coherent, infers that examination is guided by the standards of sensible thinking. Enlistment and conclusion are of incredible incentive in research.
l. Replicable: This characteristic allows the results of the research to be confirmed by repeating the study and after that building a sound basis for making decisions.