Course Content
What is Research?
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Meaning, Types, and Characteristics of Research
Meaning, Types, and Characteristics of Research
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Types Of Research For UGC NET Exam 2022
Types Of Research For UGC NET Exam 2022
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Positivism & Post-Positivistic Approach in Research for UGC NET Exam
Positivism & Post-Positivistic Approach in Research for UGC NET Exam
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Research Process for UGC NET Paper-1
Research Aptitude Process for Paper-1
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Application Of ICT
Application Of ICT In Research
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Research Ethics
Research Ethics
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Research Aptitude UGC NET JRF – Paper 1 Full Course
About Lesson

“Research is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or an issue” – Creswell

There are several steps to carry out the research process, which are systematic and to be followed in that particular order to reach the destination. (These could be remembered with the acronym I Love Research Development and Formulation in 3-D to Get Results), they are: 

  • Identification of the research problem: This is the first and foremost problem in the process, a reasonable knowledge about the subject and information about our chosen topic is required here. This could be further broken into the following steps:-                                                      
  • The primary consideration behind the topic selection should be the Interest of the researcher, the magnitude of the research proposal and its manageability, what is its relevance, and also the amount of data available to carry out the research.
  • Literature Review: – This is the second important step of the research that helps substantiate all the upcoming steps. The process of literature review covers searching the existing literature and reviewing it and developing a theoretical and conceptual framework. The main objectives of this stage are:                                                              
  • Research Objective: The objectives are the goals one set up to attain at the end of the study. They tell us the mina objectives as well as the sub-objective of any research problem. They make the research clearer and actions oriented. The goals generally start with the words, such as ‘to determine, ‘to find out to explore, etc. The objective should be such that it communicates the main aim of our finding to the other person. An example of the same is “To find out the effect of stubble burning on the Delhi pollution”.
  • The concept of variables also comes into the picture, the independent variables are also called experimental variables. Their values don’t depend on any factor; instead, they become the cause of another variable.
  • The dependent variables are those whose value is determined by the independent variables; they change with any changes in the independent variables.

Example: When the income of an individual is raised, his disposable income increases too. In this example, the income level of the individual is an independent variable whereas the disposable income is an independent variable.

  • Formulation of Hypothesis: The researchers have many questions that they want to ask. These might include predictions about a possible relationship between the variables that have in mind for the research. The truth completely is not available to the researcher at the beginning so he makes assumptions about the outcome, that assumption is called the research hypothesis.
  • The assumption or fact we already know is called the null hypothesis, and the one we want to test is called an alternative hypothesis. The primary function of a hypothesis is to bring focus, clarity, and specification to the research proposal and to make the study more objective. There is various type of hypothesis:                                                                   
  • Preparing the research design: Once we have the hypothesis in place the next step is to draft a design strategy for the research proposal which includes questions like how long you wish to carry out the research, what will be the timeline, what will be the methods to collect the data and also what type of data you want to collect. The design could be said to the overall plan and structure of the research in the coming days of the research. The design could be based on the nature of the investigation (experiments or non- experimental study).
  • Data collection: The type of data one needs to collect and how the researcher wishes to collect it. There are many methods of data collection. Some of them are: The data is collected either using Probability sampling or Non-probability sampling that includes Convenience sampling, Judgement sampling, quota sampling, or accidental sampling.
  • Data Analysis: This step of the research is the analysis of all the data collected and collecting it through techniques such as probability or random sampling or non-probability sampling which is then analyzed and processed using editing and coding. A large amount of data collected has to be stored in the form of tables, charts, or graphs. This data is then analyzed using Manual data analysis, also data analysis using computers. Hypothesis testing is also done here using various methods like t-test, f-test, or chi-square.
  • Generalization and Interpretation: The Hypothesis is tested, and the researcher may arrive at the generalization of the topic. Here he is prepared to build a theory from all the observation and work done up to this stage. The researcher may have no hypothesis to go with, so here he makes interpretations and develops a general idea that could be subsequently used in further research.
  • Report Writing: This is the final step of the journey. The report writing is a more formal and structured approach to conclude everything until now. It includes everything from theory, methods, findings, references, and citations. The language should be articulate and formal.
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