- It is a methodical process of gathering and analyzing information about the relevant questions and then evaluating the results.
- The data that is collected is subjected to hypothesis testing and to explaining the phenomenon.
Types of Data Collection
Primary Data Collection
- It is the process of gathering data collection at the source.
- Original data is collected by the researcher for a specific purpose.
- It could be further analyzed through Qualitative research and Quantitative data collection.
1. Qualitative Research Method
- In this form of research, method numbers are not used, rather it is based on qualitative aspects like the emotion and feelings of the researcher.
- An open-ended questionnaire is the best method for this.
. Online forums
2. Online communities
3. Web survey chat
4. Online communities
5. In-depth interviews
2. Quantitative Method
It is presented in numbers and deduction requires mathematical calculation.
The best method is using close-ended questions at arriving at a figure calculated mathematically.
1. Face to face
Secondary Data Collection
- It is referred to as collecting or gathering data second-hand by a researcher who is not the original user.
- The data is already in existence in the form of journals, published books, or online portals.
- It is an easy and inexpensive way of collecting data.
IMPORTANCE OF DATA COLLECTION
1. The integrity of The Research
- One of the prime reasons for collecting data either through qualitative or quantitative methods is to make sure that the research in question has integrity.
2. Reduce the errors
- The researcher must use the methods which ensure that there is no error in the result.
3. Decision Making
- The risk of error in decision-making is minimized and the data is accurately collected, so the researcher doesn’t make uninformed decisions.
4. Save Cost and Time
- Data collection saves the researcher fund and time that would be misspent without an understanding of the subject or topic.
What are Data Collection Tools?
- These are the instruments and devices used to collect data such as a questionnaire or interview done with the assistance of technology.
- Tools used for collecting data are Questionnaires, Checklists, Case Studies, Interviews, Observations, and Surveys.
- It is a face-to-face conversation that takes place between a researcher and the subject.
- The purpose is to collect data for research on the subject.
1. Information given is In-depth.
2. Freedom of flexibility
3. Accurate data.
2. Expensive to collect
- In this, the researcher asks a series of questions and receives responses from the subject.
- Questionnaires are mainly designed to collect data from a group.
- In a questionnaire, three kinds of questions are used: fixed-alternative, scale, and open-ended.
1. a Large number of people can be administered.
2. Can be used to compare data.
3. Easy to analyze.
4. Inexpensive to others.
5. Identity of the responder is protected.
1. Respondent may lose interest midway.
2. Respondent may answer dishonestly.
3. Some of the questions may be left unanswered.
4. A researcher may not analyze all questions.
3. Data REPORTING
- It is the process of gathering and submitting data for further analysis.
- The key to this is accurate reporting because inaccurate reporting leads to uninformed decision-making.
1. Informed decision-making.
2. Easily accessible.
1. The self-reported answer may be exaggerated.
2. Biasness in results.
3. Respondents not giving all details due to shyness.
4. EXISTING DATA
- The date is already there in existence. The researcher is doing further investigation based on the existing data.
- An example would be sourcing data from an archive.
1. Very high accuracy.
2. Easy access to information.
1. Problems with evaluation.
2. Difficulty in understanding.
- In this, data is gathered through observation by the researcher.
- The nature of the observation could be done either as a complete observer, an observer as a participant, a participant as an observer, or as a complete participant.
- This method is a key base for formulating a hypothesis.
1. It is easy to administer.
2. Great accuracy with results.
3. Unwilling respondent’s situation does not arrive in this.
1. Some phenomena aren’t open to observation.
2. It cannot be relied upon.
3. Bias may arise.
4. It is expensive to administer.
5. Its validity cannot be predicted accurately.