Course Content
What is Research?
Meaning, Types, and Characteristics of Research
Meaning, Types, and Characteristics of Research
Types Of Research For UGC NET Exam 2022
Types Of Research For UGC NET Exam 2022
Positivism & Post-Positivistic Approach in Research for UGC NET Exam
Positivism & Post-Positivistic Approach in Research for UGC NET Exam
Research Process for UGC NET Paper-1
Research Aptitude Process for Paper-1
Application Of ICT
Application Of ICT In Research
Research Ethics
Research Ethics
Research Aptitude UGC NET JRF – Paper 1 Full Course
About Lesson

Research Synopsis

1. Research synopsis is a short sketch of the research thesis and all steps proposed to be followed in the research.

2. It gives a clear view of the research aim and time frame in which it is to be done.

3. It helps researchers to stay focused on the objective of research and to avoid unrelated things to the research.

4. In short, It is a plan for your research project.

5. Given below are some of the necessary items that should be found in a synopsis.

  • Background of the research– In this researcher talks about the background of his/her research field and discusses the importance of his/her research work as a whole.
  • Methodology– It specifies the methods of data gathering and analysis. The data gathered could be quantitative and qualitative.
  • Research Question– To focus more on the research and further the cause of research, questions are asked by the researcher in research.
  • Hypothesis– In this there are no pre-determined outcomes. The researcher here mentions the assumption on which the research work is built. This assumption might turn out to be false at the end of the research.
  • Objectives of the study- In this researcher talk about the aim of his/her research. Clarity is very necessary for this.
  • Literature review– In this researcher reads the work of another researcher in the same area. The aim of this is to show that research hasn’t been done on this topic before.
  • Limitations- In this researcher discusses the challenges that his/her research faces and factors that affect the research.
  • References- In this researcher talks about whose findings he/she is going to refute in his/her research.


1. To help readers quickly know the purpose of a research article, an abstract is given. It is like a summary.

2. It allows the writer to elaborate upon each major aspect of the paper and helps readers decide if they want to read the rest of the paper.

3. It is one paragraph only, comprising generally of not more than 300 words.

4. An abstract always appears at the beginning of a  thesis or research paper, acting as the point of entry for any given academic paper or patent application.

5. While preparing an abstract one should ensure that all the following necessary contents are included

The purpose and motivation

  • You should start your abstract by explaining why people should care about this study.
  • Why is it significant to your field and perhaps to the wider world?
  • Start by answering the following questions

1. What made you decide to do this study or project?

2. Why is this study important to your field or the lay readers?

3. Why should someone read your entire essay?

  • In short, the first section of your abstract should include the importance of the research and its impact on related research fields or the wider scientific domain.

Explain the problem addressed in the research

  • Stating the “problem” that your research addresses are the corollary to why your specific study is important and necessary.
  • You can combine the problem with the motivation section, but from a perspective of organization and clarity, it is best to separate the two.
  • Here, we have to answer the question, “What is the problem which your research is trying to solve?”.

Discuss your approach (Methods and Materials)

  • You have established the importance of the research, your motivation for studying this issue, and the specific problem your paper addresses.
  • Now you need to discuss how you solved or made progress on this problem – how you conducted your research. 
  • Here, you are showing the reader the internal engine of your research machine and how it functioned in an entire study.

Summarize your results

  • Here you will give an overview of the outcome of your study.
  • Avoid using too many vague qualitative terms and try to use at least some quantitative terms (i.e., percentages, figures, numbers).
  • Save the qualitative statements in the conclusion segment.

State your conclusion

  • In the last section of your abstract, you will state the implications and limitations of your study.
  • Be sure to connect this statement closely to your results and not the area of study in general.

Types of Abstract

1. Critical Abstract

  • It is a comment about the research’s validity, reliability, or completeness.
  • In this researcher compares and evaluates the work with another work on the same subject.
  • The length of this abstract is not more than 400-500 words.

2. Descriptive Abstract

  • It indicates the type of information found in the work.
  • It includes the purpose, methods, and scope of the research.
  • It describes the work that is being summarised by the researcher.
  • It is short, usually not more than 100 words.

3. Informative Abstract

  • In this main arguments and important results and evidence are presented by the researcher.
  • It also includes the results and conclusion of the research.
  • The length is not more than 300 words.

4. Highlight Abstract

  • It is mainly written to attract the attention of the reader.
  • It cannot be independent of the associated article.
  • But it is rarely used in academic writing.

Difference between Research Synopsis & Abstract

  • An abstract summarizes, usually one paragraph of 300 words or less, the major aspects of the entire paper in a prescribed sequence that includes the overall purpose of the study and the research problems you investigated, the basic design of the study, major findings or trends found as a result of your analysis, and a summary of your interpretations and conclusions.
  • On the other hand, the Synopsis is the gist of your planned project submitted for approval from competent authorities. It gives a panoramic view of your research for quick analysis by the reviewers. 
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