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About Lesson

Formats and styles of Referencing a Research Report

The research is said to be completed only when a good research report is written after the successful conducting of the research by following the steps beginning with identifying the research problem, hypothesis formulation and finally culminating into the report writing.

The research thesis or dissertation is written by using and stating even the works of other scholars are researchers who have contributed to similar topics before. The referencing style is generally a set of rules telling you how to acknowledge the thoughts and words of others in a certain way. They have many advantages, like:

There are different ways used by various universities and journals having different background research plans and bibliographic references. Usually, different standards are used for documenting sources of information in research papers, they may vary as per the preferences of the scholar, but have do-follow broad pre-defined standards to document their research references.

The two most important and commonly used formatting styles are published by:

  • MLA (Modern Language Association), commonly seen as ” Works Cited”
  • APA (American Psychological Association), commonly seen as “Reference list.”

MLA Styles

  • There are a few important features of MLA style :
  • Titles are underlined with major words capitalized.
  • The full name of the author is used.
  • The author’s name and page numbers are used for “in-text”.
  • The commas are not used usually
  • The source page is cited as ‘works cited.’
  • They are generally used in the humanities

Example of MLA style:

Author, First name. ‘Title of Article. Title of Journal Volume. Issue (Year): pages. Name of the database. Web. Date of access.

APA Styles

The APA style has the following features:

  • The titles are in italics.
  • The last name of the author is used
  • The author’s name and the year of publication are used for in-text.
  • Commas are used for in-text
  • These styles are used in Social sciences subjects.

Example of the APA style:

Author, B.B., Author C.C  and Author X.X (Year). Title of the article.Title of periodical, volume number (issue number), pages. DOI

Many terms are used in the context of footnotes and writings:

  • Ibid: it is an abbreviation for the Latin term Ibidem, which means the same. It means the same author and source of books and journals in immediately preceding referencing.
  • cit.: It’s the same as the Latin term opus citation, meaning the work cited. It means the reference listed earlier.
  • cit.: This is the abbreviation for loco citato, which means place cited — usually used as a footnote or endnote used to repeat the title and page number.
  • al.: It refers to others, usually referring to the number of people.

The other styles used are IEEE(Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers), Harvard style, AMJ ( Academy of Management style), Chicago manual style, and Vancouver style.

The Indian National Bibliography has been conceived as an authoritative bibliographical record of current Indian publications. It falls under the Ministry of Culture, Government of India.

Shodhganga and Shodhgangotri have been conceived as the digital repositories of Indian electronics thesis and dissertation set up by the Information and Library Network (INFLIBNET) Centre. It is an autonomous Inter-University center that comes under the aegis of UGC. The research scholars and Ph.D. candidates now have to store their research in a CD chapter-wise in PDF format, and that is to be stored in the Shodhganga portal. The CD has to be verified by the Head of the department or the Supervisor of the candidate.

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